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Hydrogen Powered Aviation by Clean Sky
This report assesses the potential of hydrogen propulsion to reduce aviation’s climate impact. To scale H2 -powered aircraft, several technological unlocks need to happen: enhancing the overall efficiency with lighter tanks (targeting 12 kWh/kg / gravimetric index of 35%) and fuel cell systems (targeting 2 kW/kg incl. cooling), liquid hydrogen (LH2) distribution within the aircraft, turbines capable of burning hydrogen with low-NOx emissions.
Ammonia & other feedstock applications by Hydrogen Council
Path to hydrogen competitiveness - A cost perspective. Among other existing industrial feedstock applications the paper focuses on green ammonia cost perspectives. About 80 per cent of the ammonia produced is used in the manufacture of fertilisers, with end products such as urea or NPK (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium fertiliser). Ammonia production today sources hydrogen via steam methane reforming (SMR) or coal gasification, which emits about 2.5 tons of CO2 per ton of ammonia produced.
Levelized Cost Of Hydrogen by Ørsted
The "Power-to-X" whitepaper by Ørstedin (2020) states that achieving cost-competitiveness for renewable hydrogen production hinges on five factors: • Capital expenditure • Efficiency of the electrolyser • Renewable power costs • Utilisation rates of the assets • Regulation ensuring a 'level playing field'
System Level Description of Electrolyzers by IRENA
This report explores strategies and policies to drive innovation, cut costs for electrolysers and make green hydrogen a least-cost solution wherever needed. With larger production facilities, design standardization and insights from early adopters, the proposed strategies could cut costs by 40% in the short term and up to 80% in the long term, this study finds. The reports contain a clear presentation of the four types of electrolysers: Alkaline and polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) – already at commercial stage ant Anion exchange membrane (AEM) and solid oxide - now at lab scale, promise a major step forward